古埃及的歷史

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埃及歷史
所有吉薩Pyramids.jpg“
本文是一個系列的一部分
史前埃及 公元前3100年之前
古埃及
早王朝時期 公元前3100-2686年
古王國 公元前2686年至2181年
第一中間期 公元前2181至2055年
古村 公元前1655至50年
公元前1650年至1550年 第二中間期
新王國時期 公元前1550至1069年
第三中間期 公元前1069-664年
後期 公元前664-332年
古代
埃及 公元前525-332年 阿契美尼德
埃及托勒密王朝 公元前332-30
羅馬和 拜占庭埃及 公元前30年-公元641年
埃及 621-629 薩珊
中世紀
阿拉伯埃及 641-969
埃及法蒂瑪 969-1171
1171年至1250年 埃及阿尤布
1250年至1517年 埃及馬穆魯克
近代早期
1517年至1867年 奧斯曼埃及
法國佔領 1798-1801
埃及根據 1805年至1882年 穆罕默德·阿里
埃及 1867-1914 Khedivate
現代埃及
1882年至1953年 英國佔領
埃及 1914-1922 蘇丹國
1922年至1953年 埃及王國
共和國 1953年至今
埃及 埃及門戶

古埃及的歷史跨越從早期的前王朝時期尼羅河谷北部的定居點在公元前30年羅馬人征服 。法老時期的日期是從公元前3200年左右, 埃及的時候成為一個統一的國家,希臘在公元前332年的統治下,直到全國下跌。

年表 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

注意
對於替代'修訂'埃及的年表,看到埃及的年表

根據每個法老 王朝的統治埃及的歷史被分成幾個不同的時期。約會的事件仍是一個研究課題。保守的日期不支持任何可靠的絕對日期跨度約三千年。以下是列表,根據常規埃及年表

埃及新石器時代 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

新石器時期 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

尼羅河一直以來游牧狩獵採集開始沿著它生活在更新世的埃及文化的生命線。這些早期的人的痕跡出現在文物和石刻的形式沿尼羅河的露台,在綠洲。埃及人在尼羅河意味著生活,意味著死亡沙漠,沙漠雖然沒有為他們提供保護,從侵略者。

沿著尼羅河,在公元前12日,已使用的最早的鐮刀葉片式一粒磨文化取代另一種文化的獵人漁民聚會的人使用石制工具 。證據還表明人類居住和牛放牧在埃及的西南角,靠近蘇丹邊境,在公元前8000年之前。但據芭芭拉·巴里什獨立牛馴化事件在非洲的想法必須被拋棄,因為隨後的收集的證據,30年過了一段並沒有證實這一點。 [1]在這種已知最古老的馴養牛的光仍然在非洲從法尤姆C。公元前4400年[2] 。地質證據和計算機氣候模型研究表明,自然氣候的變化公元前8000年左右開始進行乾燥非洲北部廣泛牧區,最終形成撒哈拉 (公元前約公元前)。

續乾燥迫使埃及人圍繞尼羅河更永久定居的早期祖先,並迫使它們採取更久坐不動的生活方式。然而,從公元前9000至6000年期間,已經離開了很少的考古證據的方式。

前王朝時期 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

à涅伽達II花瓶裝飾有瞪羚,在盧浮宮展出。

埃及尼羅河谷基本上是不適合居住,直到銀行的河流沿線土地的清理和灌溉工作已啟動。 [3]然而,它出現這個間隙和灌溉方式主要是公元前6000年左右。到那個時候,社會在尼羅河谷已經從事有組織的農業砂漿和尼羅河谷的大型建築物的建設。 [4]在這個時候,埃及人在埃及西南角的放牧牛,還興建大型建築物。在公元前4000年使用。尼羅河谷和三角洲人民自給自足,提高大麥和二粒小麥(早熟品種),並把它保存在坑兩旁蘆葦席子。 [5]他們提出了牛,羊和豬,他們編織床單和籃子。 [6]前王朝時期一直持續到這個時候,各種各樣舉行與涅伽達的文化開始。

公元前5500至3100年,在埃及前王朝時期,蓬勃發展的小型定居點沿尼羅河三角洲注入地中海 。之前的埃及第一王朝,公元前3300年,埃及被分為兩個王國,被稱為作為上埃及大Shemau的 ,到南部,和下埃及鉭Mehu,到北部。 [7]的分界線大致繪製在該地區的現代開羅

t亞洲文化是下一個出現在上埃及。這組被命名為明鏡塔薩,網站之間的尼羅河艾斯尤特艾赫米姆的東岸發現的墓葬。值得注意的是t亞洲文化組生產的最早的柏油路潔具在其頂部和內飾已被塗成黑色,紅色和棕色的陶器類型。 [8]

巴達裡文化,命名為鮑道裡網站明鏡附近塔薩,遵循t亞洲文化,但兩者之間的相似之處已經導致許多人避免區分他們。巴達裡文化陶器的那種稱為布拉克托普潔具繼續生產(雖然它的質量大有改善,比以前的標本),被分配序列約會在21和29之間的數字。 [9]的顯著差異,但是,t亞洲之間巴達裡文化團體阻止學者完全合併兩個一起巴達裡網站使用銅除了石頭,是銅石定居點,而t亞洲的網站仍然是新石器時代 ,技術上被認為是石器時代]

Amratian文化被命名為el-AMRA的網站後, 鮑道裡南部約120公里。 El-AMRA的第一個站點,其中這種文化組發現unmingled,與後來Gerzean的文化組,然而,這個時期是更好地證明在涅伽達的網站,因此,它也被稱為涅伽達老子文化。 [10]黑平頂潔具繼續生產,但白色交叉線潔具,一種類型的陶器裝飾著接近平行的白線接近平行的白線越過另一組,在這段時間開始生產。的Amratian期間皮特里的序列約會系統SD介於30和39 。 [11]上埃及和下埃及之間的貿易被證明在這個時候,新挖掘的對象表示。發現來自北方的石頭花瓶el-AMRA的,顯然是進口的銅,這是不存在在埃及的西奈半島,或者從努比亞黑曜石 [12]和極少量的黃金 [11]明確進口努比亞在這段時間。綠洲貿易也有可能。 [12]

的Gerzean文化,命名網站Gerza後的,是埃及文化發展的下一階段,它是在這個時候,埃及王朝奠定了的基礎。 Gerzean文化主要是一個完整的開發出來的Amratian文化開始,在三角洲和上埃及向南移動,但是,它沒有在努比亞打跑Amratian文化, [13]的 Gerzean文化恰逢降雨顯著下降, [13]和農業生產的絕大多數食品[13]隨著食品供應的增加,民眾通過更加久坐不動的生活方式,以及較大的定居點增長城市的約5000名居民。 [13]正是在這個時候,城市居民開始使用泥磚來建立自己的城市。 [13]銅代替石頭,被越來越多地用來做工具[13]和武器裝備。 [14]銀,金,青金石,和彩陶裝飾用, [15]和研磨調色板巴達裡時期以來開始用於眼漆飾以浮雕。 [14]

埃及王朝 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

古埃及時期


早期王朝時期 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

石碑的第二王朝法老Raneb ,顯示他的名字的象形文字在serekh內, 荷魯斯超越。在紐約大都會藝術博物館展出。

古埃及的歷史記錄開始與埃及作為一個統一的國家,公元前3150年左右的某個時候發生。據埃及傳統梅內斯 ,思想統一上下埃及,是第一任國王。這個埃及的文化,風俗,藝術表達,建築,結構和社會是緊密聯繫在一起的宗教,非常穩定,變化不大,過了一段近3000年。

埃及年表 ,其中涉及regnal年的這個時候開始。 傳統的埃及年表是在二十世紀年表接受,但它不包括任何建議,也已在這段時間的主要修訂。即使是在一個單一的工作,考古學家常常會提供幾個可能的日期,甚至幾個整年表可能性。因此,有可能是特別是有關古埃及的統治者或主題的文章在這裡和在所示日期之間的差異。也有幾種可能的拼寫的名字。通常情況下,埃及古物學家分裂法老文明的歷史奠定了一個時間表,首先由馬涅托Aegyptiaca(埃及歷史),這是寫在托勒密時代,在公元前三世紀。

埃及統一之前,土地是個自治村定居。隨著早期王朝,埃及的歷史,此後的大部分,國家來到被稱為兩地政統治者設立國家行政部門,並任命皇家總督。

據到馬涅托 ,第一個國王梅內斯 ,但考古發現支持這樣的觀點法老要求有團結的兩塊土地是納爾邁 (最終王的Protodynastic期間的 )。他的名字被稱為主要來自著名的納爾邁調色板 ,其場景被解釋為統一上下埃及的行為。

葬禮精英的做法導致mastaba墓葬,後來成為隨後的古王國如階梯金字塔結構模型的建設。

古王國 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

砂岩雕像的法老Menkaura他的駙女王Khamerernebty II。最初是從他的吉薩谷寺,現在,波士頓美術博物館展出。

古王國是最通常被視為跨越一段時間,當埃及第三王朝統治到第六王朝 (公元前2686年-公元前2134年)。埃及古王國時期的都城位於孟菲斯喬塞爾建立他的法院。也許是最有名的古王國,然而,大量的金字塔作為法老的墓地,這是在這個時候建造的。出於這個原因,古王國經常被稱為“金字塔的年齡。”首先值得注意的是古王國法老喬塞爾第三王朝(公元前2630至11年),誰下令建造金字塔(孟菲斯墓地, 薩卡拉 階梯金字塔 ) 。

正是在這個時代,那以前獨立的古埃及國家成為稱為nomes ,完全由法老統治。隨後前統治者被迫承擔的角色省長或以其他方式在稅收徵管工作,在這個時代的埃及人崇拜他們的法老如神,相信他保證每年的尼羅河洪水氾濫,這是必要的莊稼。

第四王朝下的舊王國和其王室的權力達到了頂峰。王朝的創始人Sneferu ,相信已經委託至少有三個金字塔,而他的兒子和繼任者胡夫豎立吉薩大金字塔 ,Sneferu有更多的石頭和磚移動比任何其他法老胡夫希臘 基奧普斯 ),他的兒子哈夫拉 (Chephren希臘),和他的孫子Menkaura (希臘Mycerinus)他們的金字塔的建設,實現持久的名聲。要組織和飼料所需的人力來創建這些需要一個集中的政府廣泛權力的金字塔,埃及古物學家認為古王國,在這個時候表現出這樣的先進水平。最近發掘馬克·萊納率領的金字塔附近發現了一個大型城市,這似乎已經安置,餵養並提供了金字塔的工人。雖然它曾一度被認為奴隸建造這些紀念碑,聖經出埃及記“的故事,誰負責監督建造金字塔的工人的墳墓,研究的理論基礎上,已經顯示出,他們建造由來自埃及各地農民 徭役 。他們顯然奏效,而每年尼羅河洪水淹沒他們的領域,以及作為一個非常大的船員的專家,包括石材切割機,畫家,數學家和祭司。

第五王朝開始與Userkhaf。2495年開始,並且被打上了崇拜太陽神RA的重要性日益增加。因此,較少的努力,在第四王朝,更致力於建造金字塔複合體,而不是在Abusir太陽寺廟建設。金字塔複合體的裝飾更精細的增長在王朝的最後一位國王烏納斯金字塔經文刻在他的金字塔。埃及貿易商品,如烏梅 ,香如沒藥乳香 ,黃金,銅等有用金屬的擴大利益迫使古埃及人到公海導航。證據從金字塔 ,王朝的第二位國王, Sahure顯示存在與敘利亞海岸促使雪松木是一個正規的貿易。老王還推出探險平底船著名的土地 ,可能在現代埃塞俄比亞和索馬里,烏木,象牙和芳香樹脂。

第六王朝 (公元前2345年至2181年)期間,法老的力量逐漸減弱,有利於的強大nomarchs(地區長官)。這些不再屬於王室和他們的負責世襲,從而創造當地朝代在很大程度上獨立於中央的權威的法老王。內部障礙設置在佩皮二世(公元前2278年至2184年)的令人難以置信的長期統治王朝接近尾聲。他的死亡,肯定是過去,其擬繼承人,有可能接班鬥爭和國家溜進佩皮二世的統治結束後僅僅幾十年的內戰。最後一擊時, 嚴重的乾旱影響了該地區降水急劇下降,導致在公元前22世紀, 尼羅河洪水水位持續偏低。 [16]其結果是古王國的崩潰,隨後幾十年的飢荒和紛爭。

第一中間期 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

陶器模型用於埋葬第一中級期間, 皇家安大略博物館展出的一所房子。

淪陷後的古王國被稱為第一中間期,一般被認為包括一個相對模糊的法老從第六第十集的,而大部分的時間來了一個大約200年的伸展十一王朝。可能其中大部分是當地的君主,誰沒有抱多大的力量自己有限的域之外,並沒有舉行功率在整個埃及。

雖然旁邊還有沒有官方記錄覆蓋此期間,有一些虛構的文本稱為哀歌隨後古村初期可能一些啟發,在此期間發生了什麼事。這些文本反映的細分規則,別人暗示入侵由“亞細亞弓箭手”。故事集中在一個社會裡,社會和自然的東西的自然秩序被推翻。

這也是極有可能的,這是在此期間,所有的金字塔墓複合物被劫。此外的哀歌文本暗示了這一事實,並經初古村木乃伊被發現裝飾法術曾經獨家的第六王朝的國王的金字塔。

公元前2160年,一個新的鞏固的法老( 第九屆第十屆時期)線下埃及從他們的資本在Herakleopolis麥格納 。在底比斯的對手行( 第十一王朝 )的基礎團聚上埃及的和兩個敵對兩代之間的衝突是不可避免的。公元前2055年左右,底比斯軍隊擊敗Heracleopolitan法老,兩地政團聚。它的第一個法老在位, Mentuhotep II標誌著中東 ​​王國的開始。

[ 編輯源 古村 | 編輯 ]

一個Osiride的雕像的第二Mentuhotep,中東王國的創始人

古村拉伸從第十一王朝建立到第十四王朝的結束,在古埃及的歷史時期,大約在2030年和1640年之間。

這一時期包括兩個階段, 第11王朝 ,統治從底比斯第12王朝開始圍繞el-Lisht的 。這兩個朝代最初被認為是充分的程度這個統一的王國,但是現在的歷史學家[17]考慮到第13王朝至少部分屬於古村。

古村最早的法老追踪他們的起源底比斯一個nomarch ,“Intef大兒子鬱”,誰是當代銘文中提到的一些。然而,他的直接後繼Mentuhotep II被認為是這個王朝的法老。

Wahankh Intef在位期間題詞刻表明他這個王朝是第一個聲稱要統治整個埃及,索賠進入衝突與帶來了Thebeans的,統治者的Herakleopolis麥格納第十屆王朝 。 Intef進行了幾次戰役北移和捕獲阿拜多斯重要的諾姆。

斷斷續續地持續之間的Thebean和Heracleapolitan時期的戰爭,直到被擊敗,當Herakleopolitans 第二 Nebhetepra Mentuhotep ,底比斯王朝王國的第14 開始,以鞏固自己的統治。第二Mentuhotep被稱為所吩咐以南的軍事行動進入努比亞第一中間期 ,已獲得其獨立性。也有證據表明對巴勒斯坦的軍事行動。國王重組的國家,並為國家公務員管理的頭部放置了一個大臣

四Mentuhotep是這個王朝的最後的法老,和,雖然從各種列表法老缺席,證明他的統治在Wadi Hammamat從幾個銘文記錄遠征紅海沿岸和採石皇室紀念碑。這次遠征的領導者是他的大臣Amenemhat,被廣泛認為是未來的法老阿門內姆哈特我第12王朝的第一位國王。一些埃及古物學家普遍認為阿門內姆哈特要么篡位上台後四Mentuhotep去世無子女。

Amenemhat我建立了一個新的埃及,首都稱為Itjtawy ,以為靠近現今EL-Lisht ,雖然編年史馬涅托的資本仍然聲稱在底比斯。強行平定Amenemhat內部動盪,剝奪的權利nomarchs ,已知有至少推出一個競選進入努比亞 。他的兒子Senusret我繼續他父親的政策,重新奪回失去在第一中間期的努比亞和其他地區。利比亞被制伏他45年統治下,埃及的繁榮和安全作抵押。

第三Senusret (1878年-公元前1839年)是一個戰士,王,領先他的部隊深為努比亞,建成大規模堡壘整個國家建立其領土不可克服的領域與埃及的正式邊界的一個系列。 第三阿門內姆哈特 (公元前1860年 - 公元前1815年)被認為是最後一個偉大的法老古村。

埃及的人口開始超過糧食生產水平,在位期間Amenemhat三,誰下令在西奈沙漠的法尤姆和增加採礦業務的開發。他還邀請了亞洲移居到埃及勞動埃及的古蹟。沿尼羅河每年洪水過後,在他統治後期開始失敗,政府進一步資源緊張。 的第十三王朝第14王朝見證緩慢下降進入埃及第二中間期,在一些亞洲移民第三Amenemhat會掌握權力的埃及希克索斯

第二中間期和希克索斯 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

第二中間期,標誌著一個時期, 古埃及再次陷入混亂之間年底古村 ,和新王國的開始。這一時期最出名的時間希克索斯 (亞洲人民)在埃及,包括第十五次第十六次時期國王的統治,使他們的外表。

第十三王朝被證明無法守住埃及長期的土地,一個省的統治家族的西部三角洲Xois的沼澤位於脫離了中央的權威,形成第十四王朝 。第十三王朝國王Neferhotep我的統治後加速土地的分裂。

希克索斯第十三王朝法老Sobekhotep IV在位期間,首次出現了公元前1720年控制Avaris鎮。傳統賬戶的輪廓“入侵”的土地由希克索斯保存馬涅托 Aegyptiaca ,誰記錄,在此期間,希克索斯人佔領了埃及,帶領Salitis ,第十五王朝的創始人。然而,在過去的幾十年中,一個簡單的遷移,很少或根本沒有涉及暴力的想法已經獲得一定的支撐。 [18]根據這一理論,埃及13王朝的統治者是無法阻止這些新移民前往埃及來自亞洲,因為他們薄弱的國王,疲於應付各種國內問題,包括可能是飢荒。

希克索斯王子和酋長統治的東部三角洲與當地埃及的附庸。希克索斯第十五王朝建立他們的資本和政府所在地孟菲斯 ,他們的夏季在Avaris居住。

集中在尼羅河三角洲東部和中東埃及希克索斯英國和大小限制,從來沒有向南延伸到上埃及 底比斯統治者的控制下,這是。希克索斯與南方的關係似乎已經主要是商業性質的,雖然底比斯王子似乎已經認識到了希克索斯統治者,並可能為他們提供了一個時期的貢品

左右的時間,孟菲斯下跌希克索斯,本土埃及執政黨在底比斯的房子宣布獨立諸侯王朝在Itj tawy和第十七王朝本身。這個王朝是證明埃及的救贖,並最終會導致解放戰爭驅車希克索斯放回亞洲。這個王朝的最後兩個國王陶二勇敢Kamose的的 阿摩斯我三角洲地區 ,完成了征服和驅逐希克索斯恢復底比斯統治整個埃及和埃及的力量成功地重申其前身為主題的努比亞地區迦南[19]他的統治標誌著第十八王朝的開始和新王國時期。

新王國 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

希克索斯在第二中間期外治的結果,可能是看到埃及新王國嘗試建立地中海東部和埃及之間的緩衝區,並實現其最大的領土範圍。它遠遠擴大到努比亞南部和近東舉行了廣泛的領土。現代敘利亞的控制,埃及軍隊赫梯軍隊戰鬥。

第十八王朝 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

金面具從圖坦卡蒙的木乃伊

這是一次巨大的財富和權力埃及。一些最重要的和最知名的法老王統治在這個時候。法老哈特謝普蘇特是在這個時候。哈特謝普蘇特是不尋常的,因為她是一位女法老,在埃及歷史上罕見的發生。她是一個雄心勃勃的和主管領導,埃及貿易以南延伸到現今索馬里和北部進入地中海。通過廣泛的宣傳和麻利的政治技巧的組合,她統治了二十多年。她的輔政王的繼任者圖特摩斯三世 (“埃及的拿破崙 “)擴大埃及的軍隊,並揮起了巨大的成功。晚,在他的統治,他下令砍死了她的名字從她的古蹟。他對亞洲人民的戰鬥,是最成功的埃及法老阿蒙霍特普三世建立廣泛的卡納克神廟,包括盧克索神廟,其中包括兩個掛架 ,新廟入口的柱廊後面,和一個新的寺廟的女神馬'在

第十九王朝 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

在公元前1300年的埃及和其世界。
拉美西斯二世巨型描繪在寺廟獻給他在阿布辛貝

拉美西斯我在位兩年的繼任者是他的兒子塞提一世 。塞提一世恢復供電,控制和尊重埃及進行在Horemheb工作。他還負責阿拜多斯創建寺廟群。

可以說是古埃及19王朝的拉美西斯二世 (“大”)在位期間作為一個民族國家的權力達到頂峰。他在位67年,從18歲,對他的前任的工作進行,並創造了許多更加輝煌的寺廟,如阿布辛貝努比亞邊境。他試圖恢復在埃及第十八王朝曾在此舉行的地中海東部地區。他的競選高潮奪回加低斯戰役在公元前1274年,在那裡他領導的埃及軍隊,赫梯國王Muwatalli II對那些被夾在歷史上首次記錄的軍事伏擊。 Ramesses II was famed for the huge number of children he sired by his various wives and concubines ; the tomb he built for his sons (many of whom he outlived) in the Valley of the Kings has proven to be the largest funerary complex in Egypt.

His immediate successors continued the military campaigns, though an increasingly troubled court complicated matters. Ramesses II was succeeded by his son Merneptah and then by Merenptah's son Seti II . Seti II's throne seems to have been disputed by his half-brother Amenmesse , who may have temporarily ruled from Thebes. Upon his death, Seti II son Siptah , who may have been afflicted with polio during his life, was appointed to the throne by Chancellor Bay , an Asiatic commoner who served as vizier behind the scenes. At Siptah's early death, the throne was assumed by Twosret , the dowager queen of Seti II (and possibly Amenmesse's sister). A period of anarchy at the end of Twosret's short reign saw a native reaction to foreign control leading to the execution of the chancellor, and placing Setnakhte on the throne, establishing the Twentieth Dynasty .

Twentieth Dynasty [ edit source | edit ]

The last "great" pharaoh from the New Kingdom is widely regarded to be Ramesses III , the son of Setnakhte who reigned three decades after the time of Ramesses II . In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea People , invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles. He claimed that he incorporated them as subject people and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is evidence that they forced their way into Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire. He was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 6 and Year 11 respectively. [ 20 ]

The heavy cost of these battles slowly exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labor strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the Egypt's favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Deir el Medina could not be provisioned. [ 21 ] Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC. [ 22 ] One proposed cause is the Hekla 3 eruption of the Hekla volcano in Iceland, but the dating of that event remains in dispute.

Following Ramesses III's death there was endless bickering between his heirs. Three of his sons would go on to assume power as Ramesses IV , Ramesses VI and Ramesses VIII respectively. However, at this time Egypt was also increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding levels of the Nile , famine, civil unrest and official corruption. The power of the last pharaoh, Ramesses XI , grew so weak that in the south the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the effective defacto rulers of Upper Egypt , while Smendes controlled Lower Egypt even before Ramesses XI's death. Smendes would eventually found the Twenty-First dynasty at Tanis .

Third Intermediate Period [ edit source | edit ]

Sphinx of the Nubian pharaoh Taharqa .
25th Dynasty

After the death of Ramesses XI , his successor Smendes ruled from the city of Tanis in the north, while the High Priests of Amun at Thebes had effective rule of the south of the country, whilst still nominally recognizing Smendes as king. [ 23 ] In fact, this division was less significant than it seems, since both priests and pharaohs came from the same family. Piankh , assumed control of Upper Egypt, ruling from Thebes , with the northern limit of his control ending at Al-Hibah . (The High Priest Herihor had died before Ramesses XI, but also was an all-but-independent ruler in the latter days of the king's reign.) The country was once again split into two parts with the priests in Thebes and the Pharaohs at Tanis. Their reign seems to be without any other distinction, and they were replaced without any apparent struggle by the Libyan kings of the Twenty-Second Dynasty .

Egypt has long had ties with Libya , and the first king of the new dynasty, Shoshenq I , was a Meshwesh Libyan, who served as the commander of the armies under the last ruler of the Twenty-First Dynasty, Psusennes II . He unified the country, putting control of the Amun clergy under his own son as the High Priest of Amun, a post that was previously a hereditary appointment. The scant and patchy nature of the written records from this period suggest that it was unsettled. There appear to have been many subversive groups, which eventually led to the creation of the Twenty-Third Dynasty , which ran concurrent with the latter part of the Twenty-Second Dynasty. The country was reunited by the Twenty-Second Dynasty founded by Shoshenq I in 945 BC (or 943 BC), who descended from Meshwesh immigrants, originally from Ancient Libya . This brought stability to the country for well over a century. After the reign of Osorkon II the country had again splintered into two states with Shoshenq III of the Twenty-Second Dynasty controlling Lower Egypt by 818 BC while Takelot II and his son (the future Osorkon III ) ruled Middle and Upper Egypt.

After the withdrawal of Egypt from Nubia at the end of the New Kingdom, a native dynasty took control of Nubia. Under king Piye , the Nubian founder of Twenty-Fifth Dynasty , the Nubians pushed north in an effort to crush his Libyan opponents ruling in the Delta. Piye managed to attain power as far as Memphis . His opponent Tefnakhte ultimately submitted to him, but he was allowed to remain in power in Lower Egypt and founded the short-lived Twenty-Fourth Dynasty at Sais . The Kushite kingdom to the south took full advantage of this division and political instability and defeated the combined might of several native-Egyptian rulers such as Peftjaubast, Osorkon IV of Tanis, and Tefnakht of Sais. Piye established the Nubian Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and appointed the defeated rulers to be his provincial governors. He was succeeded first by his brother, Shabaka , and then by his two sons Shebitku and Taharqa . Taharqa reunited the "Two lands" of Northern and Southern Egypt and created an empire that was as large as it had been since the New Kingdom . The 25th dynasty ushered in a renaissance period for Ancient Egypt. [ 24 ] Religion, the arts, and architecture were restored to their glorious Old, Middle, and New Kingdom forms. Pharaohs, such as Taharqa, built or restored temples and monuments throughout the Nile valley, including at Memphis, Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, etc. [ 25 ] It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ]

The international prestige of Egypt declined considerably by this time. The country's international allies had fallen under the sphere of influence of Assyria and from about 700 BC the question became when, not if, there would be war between the two states. Taharqa 's reign and that of his successor, Tanutamun , were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians against whom there were numerous victories, but ultimately Thebes was occupied and Memphis sacked.

Late Period [ edit source | edit ]

From 671 BC on, Memphis and the Delta region became the target of many attacks from the Assyrians , who expelled the Nubians and handed over power to client kings of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty . Psamtik I was the first to be recognized as the king of the whole of Egypt, and he brought increased stability to the country during a 54-year reign from the new capital of Sais . Four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt successfully and peacefully from 610-526 BC, keeping the Babylonians away with the help of Greek mercenaries.

By the end of this period a new power was growing in the Near East: Persia . The pharaoh Psamtik III had to face the might of Persia at Pelusium ; he was defeated and briefly escaped to Memphis, but ultimately was captured and then executed.

Persian domination [ edit source | edit ]

Achaemenid Egypt can be divided into three eras: the first period of Persian occupation when Egypt became a satrapy , followed by an interval of independence, and the second and final period of occupation.

The Persian king Cambyses assumed the formal title of Pharaoh, called himself Mesuti-Re ("Re has given birth"), and sacrificed to the Egyptian gods. He founded the Twenty-seventh dynasty . Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire .

Cambyses' successors Darius I the Great and Xerxes pursued a similar policy, visited the country, and warded off an Athenian attack. It is likely that Artaxerxes I and Darius II visited the country as well, although it is not attested in our sources, and did not prevent the Egyptians from feeling unhappy.

During the war of succession after the reign of Darius II, which broke out in 404, they revolted under Amyrtaeus and regained their independence. This sole ruler of the Twenty-eighth dynasty died in 399, and power went to the Twenty-ninth dynasty . The Thirtieth Dynasty was established in 380 BC and lasted until 343 BC. Nectanebo II was the last native king to rule Egypt.

Artaxerxes III (358–338 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief period (343–332 BC). In 332 BC Mazaces handed over the country to Alexander the Great without a fight. The Achaemenid empire had ended, and for a while Egypt was a satrapy in Alexander's empire. Later the Ptolemies and then the Romans successively ruled the Nile valley.

Ptolemaic dynasty [ edit source | edit ]

In 332 BC Alexander III of Macedon conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians. He was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. He visited Memphis , and went on a pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa . The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. He conciliated the Egyptians by the respect which he showed for their religion, but he appointed Greeks to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria , to be the new capital. The wealth of Egypt could now be harnessed for Alexander's conquest of the rest of the Persian Empire . Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia. He left Cleomenes as the ruling nomarch to control Egypt in his absence. Alexander never returned to Egypt.

Following Alexander's death in Babylon in 323 BC, a succession crisis erupted among his generals. Initially, Perdiccas ruled the empire as regent for Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaeus, who became Philip III of Macedon , and then as regent for both Philip III and Alexander's infant son Alexander IV of Macedon , who had not been born at the time of his father's death. Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy , one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC, nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV. However, as Alexander the Great's empire disintegrated, Ptolemy soon established himself as ruler in his own right. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322 BC-301 BC). In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. As Ptolemy I Soter ("Saviour"), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty that was to rule Egypt for nearly 300 years.

The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions by marrying their siblings, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] Hellenistic culture thrived in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest . The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome .

參考文獻 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

  1. ^ Barich, BE (1998) People, Water and Grain: The Beginnings of Domestication in the Sahara and the Nile Valley. Roma: L' Erma di Bretschneider (Studia archaeologica 98).
  2. ^ Barich et al. (1984) Ecological and Cultural Relevance of the Recent New Radiocabon dates from Libyan Sahara. In: L. Krzyzaniak and M. Kobusiewicz [eds.], Origin and Early Development of Food-Producing Cultures in Northeastern Africa, Poznan, Poznan Archaeological Museum, pp. 411-17.
  3. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Schribner's Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51。
  4. ^ Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 6。
  5. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times , p. 52。
  6. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times , p. 52。
  7. ^ Adkins, L. and Adkins, R. (2001) The Little Book of Egyptian Hieroglyphics , p155. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN .
  8. ^ Gardiner (1964), p.388
  9. ^ a b Gardiner (1964), p.389
  10. ^ Grimal (1988) p.24
  11. ^ a b Gardiner (1964), 390.
  12. ^ a b Grimal (1988) p.28
  13. ^ a b c d e f Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 16。
  14. ^ a b Gardiner (1694), p.391
  15. ^ Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. (Princeton: University Press, 1992), p. 17.
  16. ^ The Fall of the Old Kingdom by Fekri Hassan
  17. ^ Callender, Gae. The Middle Kingdom Renasissance from The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt , Oxford, 2000
  18. ^ Booth, Charlotte. The Hyksos Period in Egypt . p.10. Shire Egyptology. 2005. ISBN 0-7478-0638-1
  19. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt p. 194. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  20. ^ Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books, 1992. p.271
  21. ^ William F. Edgerton, The Strikes in Ramses III's Twenty-Ninth Year, JNES 10, No. 3 (July 1951), pp. 137-145
  22. ^ Frank J. Yurco, "End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause" in Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente , ed: Emily Teeter & John Larson, (SAOC 58) 1999, pp.456-458
  23. ^ Cerny, p.645
  24. ^ Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization . Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 219–221. ISBN 1-55652-072-7 .  
  25. ^ Bonnet, Charles (2006). The Nubian Pharaohs . New York: The American University in Cairo Press. pp. 142–154. ISBN 978-977-416-010-3 .  
  26. ^ Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa . California, USA: University of California Press. pp. 161–163. ISBN 0-520-06697-9 .  
  27. ^ Emberling, Geoff (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of Africa . New York: Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. pp. 9–11. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-0-613-48102-9|978-0-613-48102-9 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check |isbn= value ( help ) .  
  28. ^ Silverman, David (1997). Ancient Egypt . New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-19-521270-3 .  
  29. ^ Bowman (1996) pp25-26
  30. ^ Stanwick (2003)

延伸閱讀 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

Pharaonic Egypt [ edit source | edit ]

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Ptolemaic Egypt [ edit source | edit ]

  • Bowman, Alan K (1996). Egypt after the Pharaohs 332 BC – AD 642 (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 0-520-20531-6 .  
  • Lloyd, Alan Brian (2000). The Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BC) In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.  
  • Stanwick, Paul Edmond (2003). Portraits of the Ptolemies: Greek kings as Egyptian pharaohs . Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77772-8 .  

外部鏈接 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]