蕭伯納

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蕭伯納
蕭伯納1936.jpg
肖於1936年
天生的 (1856年7月26日 )1856年7月26日
都柏林,愛爾蘭
死了 2 11月1950(1950年11月2日 )(94歲)
英國赫特福德郡聖勞倫斯Ayot
佔用劇作家,評論家,政治活動家
國籍愛爾蘭的
母校 衛斯理學院,都柏林
類型 諷刺黑色喜劇
文學運動 易卜生主義自然主義
值得注意獎(S)

諾貝爾文學獎
1925

寫作改編劇本的奧斯卡獎
1938 皮格馬利翁

簽名

愛爾蘭 劇作家 喬治·蕭伯納 (1856年7月26日- 1950年11月2日)是倫敦經濟學院的聯合創始人。雖然他的首個獲利寫的是音樂文學批評 ,在這種能力,他寫了許多高度闡明件新聞 ,他的主要天賦是戲劇 ,他寫了60多個劇本。他也是一位散文家小說家短篇小說作家。幾乎他的所有著作解決當時的社會問題,但有一脈的喜劇這使得他們形成了鮮明的主題,更可口。從事Shaw的注意的問題包括教育,婚姻,宗教,政府,醫療保健和階級特權。

他最激怒了什麼他察覺作為工人階級​​的剝削。一位熱心的社會主義 ,肖寫了許多小冊子和演講費邊社 。他成為一個多才多藝的演說家,在促進其原因,其中包括男性和女性獲得平等的權利,減輕濫用工人階級,解除生產力的土地私有製,以及促進健康的生活方式。很短的時間,他是活躍在當地的政治,服務於倫敦郡議會

1898年,肖夏洛特·佩恩-湯森 ,一個傢伙,他倖存下來的費邊結婚。他們定居在聖勞倫斯Ayot現在在一所房子叫肖氏角 。肖死在那裡,94歲,受到傷病困擾,他從梯子上墜落所產生的慢性問題加劇。

他是唯一的人被授予 諾貝爾文學獎 (1925年)和奧斯卡 (1938年),他對文學的貢獻,並為他的工作在電影“窈窕淑女” (他的劇本改編的同名 ),分別[1]肖想要徹底的拒絕他的諾貝爾文學獎,因為他沒有公共榮譽的渴望,但在他妻子的遺願接受她認為愛爾蘭致敬。他拒絕了獎金,要求它用於資助資深劇作家奧古斯特·斯特林堡的作品從瑞典到英語的翻譯。 [2]

生活 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖氏的發源地, 都柏林

早年和家人 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

蕭伯納辛格街,都柏林,出生於1856年7月26日[3]蕭喬治·卡爾(1814年至1885年),一個不成功的糧商和公務員的某個時候,和露辛達伊麗莎白·肖,姓Gurly(1830年至1913年)的,一名專業歌手。他有兩個姐姐,辛達弗朗西斯(1853年至1920年),音樂喜劇和輕歌劇的歌手,和埃莉諾·艾格尼絲(1855年至1876年)的。

教育 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖簡要出席衛斯理學院,都柏林 ,由循道衛理教會在愛爾蘭經營的文法學校,前移動達爾基附近一所民辦學校,然後轉移到都柏林的中央示範學校。他結束了他在都柏林英語科學和商業走讀學校的正規教育。他懷著一顆學校和教師終身敵意,說:“學校和校長,我們有他們的今天,是為教育和教師的地方並不流行,但而孩子們保持,以防止他們干擾和陪伴他們的監獄獄卒的父母。“ [4]在澀序幕卡瑟爾拜倫的專業年輕的拜倫的教育經驗肖氏自己的學生時代是一個虛構的描述。後來,他刻意詳細的原因,他厭惡到正規的教育,在他的論文對家長和兒童[5]簡言之,他認為標準化的課程沒用,隔阻的精神和智力的扼殺。他特別譴責使用體罰,這是在他那個時代盛行。

當他的母親離開了家,跟著她的聲樂老師,喬治·李Vandeleur,倫敦,肖差不多16歲。 [6]他的姐妹們陪同他們的母親,但肖仍然在都柏林與他的父親,首先是作為一個不情願的瞳孔,然後作為一個業務員在地產辦公室。儘管不滿,他的工作效率,好幾年了。 [7] 1876年,邵逸夫加入他母親的倫敦家庭。她Vandeleur,李和他的妹妹露西,為他提供了一斤一個星期,而他常去公共圖書館和大英博物館的閱覽室,在那裡他認真研究,並開始寫小說。他贏得了他的津貼代筆Vandeleur Lee的音樂專欄, [8] [9]出現在倫敦的大黃蜂 。然而,他的小說被拒絕,所以他的文學盈利仍然是微不足道的,直到1885年,當他成為自支持作為一個批評家的藝術。

個人生活 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

因為它代表今天在前面的肖氏角

受他的閱讀,他成了一個專門的社會主義和費邊社的創始成員, [10]中產階級的組織,成立於1884年,通過和平手段促進社會主義的逐步普及。 [7]的過程中,他的政治活動他會見了夏洛特·佩恩-湯森,愛爾蘭的女繼承人和同胞費邊的,他們於1898年結婚。婚姻是從來沒有在夏洛特的堅持,完善,雖然他有一個已婚婦女事務。 [11]

1906年,邵氏搬進一所房子,現在叫肖氏角 ,在一個小村莊,在英國赫特福德郡聖勞倫斯河Ayot ,它是他們的生活剩下的是他們的家,他們雖然也保持了居住在29 菲茨羅伊在倫敦廣場

政治行動 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖拒絕站在為MP,但在1897年,他當選為本地倫敦郡議會的議員,作為逐行。 [12]

貢獻 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

蕭伯納的戲劇第一次在19世紀90年代。年底的十年中,他是一個既定的劇作家。他寫了63戲劇和他的輸出作為小說家,評論家,小冊子作者,散文家和私人特派員是驚人的。他已經寫了超過250,000個字母。 [13]隨著費邊社成員西德尼比阿特麗斯·韋伯格雷厄姆·沃拉斯 ,邵氏於1895年創立了倫敦經濟及政治 ​​科學學院由私人慈善事業提供資金,包括遺贈20000英鎊,從亨利·亨特哈欽森到費邊社。在倫敦經濟學院的圖書館之一被命名為Shaw的榮譽,它包含了他的論文和照片的集合。 [14]肖幫到發現的左翼雜誌新政治家“在1913年的韋伯夫婦和其他突出的成員費邊社。 [15]

最後的歲月 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

在他的晚年,肖喜歡出席的理由肖氏角。 91,他加入星際協會過去三年他的生活。 [16]他死在94歲,腎功能衰竭[17]沉澱所產生的下降,而修剪一棵樹。 [18]他的骨灰受到傷病困擾,混合與他的妻子, 夏洛特·佩恩湯森 ,散沿行人路和周圍的聖女貞德雕像在他們的花園。 [19] [20]

職業生涯 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

著作 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

蕭伯納的作品,他的小說和劇本的上市,其電子文本的鏈接,所以如果存在。

肖國際社會提供了一個詳細的按時間順序列出肖氏著作。 [21]又見蕭伯納 ,團結劇院。 [22]

批評 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖在1900年左右。

肖成為一個批評家的藝術時,由威廉·阿徹贊助,他於1885年加入檢討員工的波邁公報 [23]有他寫下的化名“CORNO二Bassetto的”(“ 巴吉喇叭 “)選中,是因為它聽起來歐洲,沒有人知道一個CORNO DI BASSETTO。在其他期刊,包括戲劇回顧 (1885年至1886年), 我們的角 (1885年至1886年),和波邁公報 (1885年至1888年),他的署名是“金紫荊星章”。 [24]從1895年到1898年,邵氏雜他的朋友弗蘭克·哈里斯星 ​​期六評論 ,在哪個位置,他出色的競選,以取代維多利亞階段的現實與戲劇的造物和偽善,並認為是戲劇評論家。作為一個評論家,他的收入,他作為一個作家,他的文章“星期六評論”他的名字眾所周知的自我支持。

蕭伯納是莎士比亞的作品強烈批評,並特別譴責了戲劇性的編輯莎士比亞的戲劇,其場面往往被削減,以創造“演技版本”的做法。尤其是他舉行了著名的19世紀的演員亨利歐文爵士蔑視這種做法,他表示在他的評論:

“在一個真正的共和國的藝術,亨利歐文爵士將ERE這贖他的演技版本在腳手架上,他不只是砍戲劇,他撕開他們辛白林他已完全超越了他自己通過手術摘除對歌第三的著名詩句,哀樂。一個人會做,會做什麼削減尾聲了貝多芬的第九交響曲的第一樂章,或縮短成kitcat 委拉斯開茲的飛利浦之一,以使其適合在他的客廳壁爐台上。“

蕭伯納學者約翰·F·馬修斯歸功於他,作為一個結果,消失兩百年的老傳統編輯莎士比亞成“演技版本”。 [25]

肖於1909年。
記者肖拍下。

雙方愛爾蘭的舞台劇演員巴里·沙利文約翰斯頓福布斯羅伯遜哈姆雷特,他 ​​有一個非常高的方面,但約翰·巴里摩爾的鄙視。巴里摩爾邀請他看到了他的著名的“哈姆雷特”的性能,和肖欣然接受,但巴里摩爾寫了一封信,信中他所有,但撕毀性能撕成碎片枯萎的。更糟的是,肖曾見過巴里摩爾當時的妻子在公司的戲,卻不敢說出自己的真實感受的表現大聲向她。 [26]

Shaw的音樂批評,短的註釋的書長度作文“完美Wagnerite不等,大部分頌揚的德國作曲家理查德·瓦格納的工作。 [27]瓦格納曾25年組成明鏡環德尼伯龍根 ,一個巨大的四部分音樂戲劇來自日耳曼神話中的神,巨人,矮人和萊茵河的姑娘,肖認為這是一個天才的工作,並檢討它的細節。除了音樂,他看見了它作為社會的演變,那裡的工人,帶動“無形的鞭子飢餓”,從他們富裕的主人追求自由的寓言。瓦格納確實有肖仔細指出,社會主義的同情,但沒有這樣的要求對他的巨著。相反,肖被貶為勃拉姆斯 ,嘲笑說:“建立一流的承辦,它只能來自一位德國安魂曲 “。 [28]雖然他發現勃拉姆斯缺乏智力,他稱讚他的音樂,他說“......沒有人能聽勃拉姆斯最富有的絕對音樂“自然話語,尤其是在他的房間組成,沒有欣喜於他的天賦”。在20世紀20年代,他撤回,調用他的早期的敵意對勃拉姆斯“我唯一的錯誤”。 [27]肖氏著作中有關音樂獲得了很大的知名度,因為他們是可以理解的平均良好的閱讀受眾成員的一天,因此,對比鮮明地與在那個時代的大多數批評dourly自命不凡迂腐。 [29]他的音樂批評已經被收集在邵氏的音樂[30]作為一個戲劇評論家的星期六評論 ,他1895年至1898年舉行一個後,肖擁護易卜生其逼真的戲劇反感維多利亞市民。他寫於1891年有影響力的精髓易卜生主義 [31] 。

小說 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖寫了五不成功的小說,在他的職業生涯的開始,在1879年和1883年之間。最終,所有被出版了。

首先要打印卡瑟爾拜倫的職業 (1886年), [32]這是寫於1882年。它的同名人物,卡瑟爾,一個叛逆的男生無情的母親,逃到澳洲,他成為著名的職業拳擊手。他返回英格蘭的一場拳擊比賽中,在愛情與博學和富有莉迪亞·卡魯下降。沈殿霞,純粹的動物磁性畫,最終同意結婚,儘管他們的社會地位的差距。這違反了分寸無效由unpresaged的發現,卡瑟爾是高貴的血統和媲美沈殿霞的一筆財富繼承人。與幸福去掉這些障礙,這對夫妻落戶平淡的家庭生活與莉迪亞主導卡瑟爾在議會中獲得一個席位。在這部小說中,肖先表示他的信念,即生產力的土地和其他自然資源,應該是屬於大家的共同點,而不是私人擁有和利用。這本書是寫在今年,當第一次聽到肖亨利·喬治主張這種改革的講座。

肖在1925年,當他被授予諾貝爾文學獎

寫於1883年, 一個不合群的社會主義是出版於1887年。 [33]的故事開始,一個熱鬧的描述學生的滑稽動作在一個女孩的學校,然後改變焦點到一個看似粗魯的勞動者誰,它很快的發展,是真的躲在一個有錢的紳士從他過於親熱的妻子。他需要獲得自由婚姻逃學,促進社會主義事業,他是一個積極的轉換。一旦出現社會主義的主題,它佔主導地位的故事,只有足夠的空間在最後一章苛責閒置上層階級讓昔日的女生,在於其最早到期,合適的結婚。

在美國出版於1900年和1914年在英國藝術家之間的愛情[34]但它是在1881年寫的。維多利亞時代的上流社會成員之間在閒聊和輕浮的氛圍中,一個年輕的肖說明他的觀點,藝術,浪漫的愛情和婚姻的實用性。誠意的,他認為,愛和安身立命的婚姻,但真正的天才的藝術家,他們的工作太消耗,以適應這種模式。在小說中佔主導地位的數字是歐文傑克,一個音樂天才,有點瘋了,完全喪失社交禮儀。他從九流開始上升到名氣很大,是遊覽名勝的社會名流,儘管他的不懈的生硬。

不合理結寫於1880年,並於1905年出版。 [35]閒階級成見和無聊的框架內肖不屑世襲地位,並宣布工人貴族。結婚,結問題,體現工會的上層階級,瑪麗安·林德,一位女士愛德華·康諾利,始終是一個工人,但現在要人,感謝他發明的電動馬達,使蒸汽機過時的。婚姻很快惡化,主要是因為瑪麗安無法超越她的社會階層的偏見和局限,因此,無法分享到她丈夫的利益。最終她跑掉與一個男人誰是她的社會同行,但他證明自己是個惡棍,她在走投無路的情況下,放棄。她的丈夫救她,並提供帶她回,但她擊敗不肯,說服她是不配和肯定,她面臨著一個賤民的生活,她的家人和朋友。寫的序言中,肖為49時,感謝他的父母在瘦肉裡的鼎力支持,而他學會了寫字,包括他早期的生活在倫敦的詳細信息。

Shaw的第一小說, 不成熟 ,是寫於1879年,但最後要在1931年印製的1。 [36]涉及羅伯特·史密斯,一個充滿活力的年輕的倫敦和直言不諱的不可知的職業生涯發展的不溫不火的戀情,未成年人的不幸和柔和的成功。酒精的行為的譴責是首要的消息在本書中,來自肖氏家族的回憶。成熟的肖在遲來的出版時間寫在書的序言中,對此作出了明確。序言是一種寶貴的資源,因為它提供了自傳體的細節,否則不可用。

短篇小說 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖寫在筆記本上,當時他的發揮皮格馬利翁的第一家生產。

,Shaw的短篇小說集, 黑妹搜尋神和一些鮮為人知的故事 ,在1934年出版。 [37] 黑姑娘熱情的皈依基督教,去尋找上帝。肖使用她的冒險的故事,寫成一則寓言,有點讓人想起班揚的朝聖者的進步 ,宗教的世界中暴露的缺陷和謬誤。在故事的大團圓結局,她的黑人女孩退出探求贊成飼養的家庭援助的一個紅頭髮的愛爾蘭人有沒有形而上的傾向。

一個小故事是奇蹟般的復仇 (1885年),其中涉及的酒精研究者不幸的事,而他探測神秘的墓地充滿聖潔的屍體遷移橫跨溪流逃避與新埋的身體罪人。

[ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

文本由邵氏戲劇本節中提到的,當他們寫的,首先可以找到完整的戲劇和序言的日期。 [38]肖開始工作,在1885年他的第一出戲為生產, 鰥夫的房子注定合作與評論家威廉·阿徹 ,誰提供的結構。阿徹決定,肖不能寫劇本,因此該項目被放棄。多年以後,肖再次嘗試,並於1892年完成的發揮沒有合作。“鰥夫的房屋 ,嚴厲抨擊slumlords的,最早於1892年12月9日在倫敦的皇家戲院進行。肖後來叫他最差的作品之一,但他已經找到了他的媒介。來自他的第一個重大的財務上的成功作為一個劇作家理查德·曼斯菲爾德 魔鬼的門徒 “(1897)的美國生產。他寫了63個劇本,其中大部分全長。

他的劇本經常在美國和德國的成功之前,他們在倫敦。雖然倫敦主要生產推遲了好幾年,他的許多早期作品,他們仍在那裡進行。例子包括夫人沃倫的專業 (1893年), 武器和人 (1894年), 念珠菌 (1894年)和你決不可以告訴 (1897年)。

蕭伯納的戲劇,像王爾德 ,包含精闢幽默,這是特殊的維多利亞時代的劇作家之間;兩位作者都記得他們的喜劇。 [39]但是,Shaw的急智應該不掩蓋他革命性的英劇的重要角色。在維多利亞時代 ,倫敦的舞台已經被視為泡沫,感傷娛樂的地方。肖做了一個論壇,供考慮道德,政治和經濟問題,可能是他最持久和最重要的戲劇藝​​術的貢獻。在這方面,他認為自己要感謝易卜生 ,開創現代現實主義戲劇的戲劇,這意味著一些重要的社會問題,提高認識。值得注意的是,“鰥夫的房子 -現實主義流派的一個例子-完成後,威廉·阿徹,肖的朋友,易卜生的戲劇翻譯了一些英語和肖寫了易卜生主義的精髓[40]

Shaw的經驗和知名度提高,他的戲劇和序跋變得更健談,他所倡導的改革,沒有減少他們的成功作為娛樂。這樣的作品,包括凱撒和埃及艷後 (1898年), 人與超人 (1903年), 芭芭拉少校 “(1905)和醫生的困境 (1906年),顯示肖的成熟的意見,因為他接近50時,他寫了他們。從1904年到1907年,他的戲劇有自己的倫敦首映式在法院劇院著名的生產,管理哈雷威巴克JE Vedrenne 。的第一個他的新劇本到被執行的法院劇院, 約翰·公牛的其他島 (1904年),而不是特別流行的今天,做了他的名聲在倫敦時, 英國國王愛德華七世笑這麼辛苦在命令性能,他打破了他的椅子。 [41]

到了20世紀10年代,肖是一個行之有效的劇作家。新作品如芬妮的播放 (1911年)和皮格馬利翁 (1912年),曾長期運行在大倫敦觀眾面前。肖允許音樂適應武器的人 (1894年)被稱為巧克力戰士 (1908年),但他有一個德國歌劇認為低。他堅持認為,他的對話沒有被使用,並且所有字符的名稱被改變,雖然歌劇實際上是沿用Shaw的情節相當密切,特別是維護其反戰的訊息。工作證明非常受歡迎,會作出肖豐富的他沒有放棄他的特許權使用費,但他討厭它的餘生禁止的音樂,他的作品,包括基於皮格馬利翁的建議弗朗茨·雷哈爾輕歌劇。有幾個他的戲劇形成的音樂劇的基礎後他的死亡的最有名的的音樂我公平的夫人 ,它被正式改編的電影版本皮格馬利翁 ,而不是在原來的階段發揮保持電影的結局劇本,和編劇艾倫傑伊·勒納保持大方大塊Shaw的對話,人物的名字,持平。

Shaw的面貌改變第一次世界大戰中,他毫不妥協的反對,儘管招致公眾的憤慨,以及來自許多朋友。他的第一個完整的長片,戰爭結束後,大多寫在心碎樓 (1919年)。出現了一個新的肖機智仍然存在,但他對人性的信念已經萎縮。在的序言心碎樓,他說:

有人說,每個人都有值得政府。這是多一點,每一個政府應有的選民;前座的演說家可以陶冶或放蕩無知的選民的意願。因此,我們的民主運動互惠的信譽和無價值的惡性循環。 [42]

肖氏角,肖寫道:1906年以後,他的大部分作品包括皮格馬利翁花園的可移動的小茅屋裡。

肖曾支持逐步走向社會主義的民主變革,但現在他看到了更多的希望在政府的良性強壯的男人。這使得他有時無視獨裁政權的危險。接近他生命的結束,希望他太失敗。 浮力億元 (1946-48),他最後打全長的第一幕,他的主角問:

為什麼呼籲暴徒在九五%的人不懂政治,可以做什麼,但沒有領導的惡作劇?什麼樣的領導人,他們投票支持?對於提圖斯奧茨和主喬治·戈登其天主教的地塊,呼籲他們希特勒滅絕猶太人,誰凝聚民族的榮耀和帝國的夢想,所有外國人都被征服的敵人的Mussolinis。 [43]

在1921年,邵氏完成回到瑪土撒拉 ,他的“基於生物學的摩西五經”。大規模,五發揮工作在伊甸園開始和結束成千上萬的在未來的幾年,它展示了邵氏的推斷是一個“生命的力量”定向進化走向極致完美的試驗和錯誤。邵逸夫宣布該劇的傑作,但許多批評者不同意。一個良性的力量引導進化再次出現在日內瓦 (1938年)的主題,其中肖維護,以獲得自治所需要的智慧,人類必須發展更長的使用壽命。

瑪土撒拉其次是聖瓊 (1923年),這是通常被認為是他的更好的作品之一。肖早就考慮寫關於貞德 ,她在1920年的冊封提供了一個強有力的激勵。那場戲是一個國際上的成功,被認為是導致他的諾貝爾文學獎。 [44]引文稱讚他的作品為“...標誌著理想主義和博愛,其刺激諷刺往往被注入了一個獨特的詩意美“。這時總理部長大衛·勞埃德·喬治考慮建議王肖的優異順序入場,但這個地方,而不是給JM巴里[44]肖拒絕爵位。 [44]但直到1946年,在政府一天安排了一個非正式的報價作出優異的訂單:肖拒絕回答,“好處”的作者只能由諡歷史的裁決。 [44]

他的餘生寫劇本,但他們很少是顯著的,或經常復興他的早期作品。 蘋果車 (1929)很可能是他這個時代最流行 ​​的工作。全長戲劇後來太真 (1931), 在岩石上 (1933), 萬花 (1935年), 日內瓦 (1938年)被視為標誌著下降。他的最後一個顯著的發揮, 在好國王查爾斯·金天 ,根據聖約翰歐文, [45]肖的主要作品都是平等的通道。

蕭伯納的戲劇冗長的序言。這些往往是更多關於肖戲劇比戲劇本身解決的問題的意見。通常情況下,他的序言長於他們引進的戲劇。例如, 企鵝圖書版,他的一個行動顯明,布蘭科Posnet(1909),29頁的劇本創作有一個67頁的序言。

的論戰 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

在信中亨利·詹姆斯 1909年1月17日[46]肖說,

我作為一個社會主義,有其他人一樣,傳道,環境的巨大力量。我們可以改變它,我們必須改變它比改變它的任務是在生活中絕對沒有其它的意思。寫劇本有什麼用,有什麼用寫任何東西,如果沒有遺囑,終於模具混亂成為一個種族的神。 [47]

因此,他認為書面的方式來推進他的人道主義和政治議程。他的作品很受歡迎,因為他們的喜劇內容,但公眾往往忽略他的消息,作為純粹的娛樂和享受他的工作。他敏銳地意識到這一點。他的序言心碎別墅 (1919年)其拒絕歸功於戰後,我無聊的觀眾的需要,經過四年之久嚴峻的窮困,更不是他們天生厭惡指令。他的鬥志昂揚的性質導致他採取各種各樣的原因,他進一步激烈的強度,不顧反對和嘲笑,頑強拼搏持有。例如, 常識戰爭 (1914年),勾畫出肖在第一次世界大戰開始的強烈反對他的立場背道而馳民情他高昂的代價和成本的票房,但他決不妥協[48] 。 [ 49]

肖加入針對天花 疫苗接種的公眾反對 ,稱它是“一種特殊的骯髒的一塊巫術”, [50]儘管近在1881年死於這種疾病。在醫生的困境的序言中,他清楚,他認為傳統的就醫與健全的公共環境衛生,個人衛生,飲食缺乏肉類應被替換的危險騙術。肖成為一個素食主義者,他是25時,聞訊後HF萊斯特的演講。 [51]在1901年,記住的經驗,他說:“我是食人族25年。對於其餘的我已是一個素食主義者“ [52]作為一個堅定的素食主義者,他是一個堅定的反活體解剖者和對立的殘酷運動的餘生。在吃動物的不道德的信念是他的心臟附近的費邊的原因之一,是經常的話題在他的戲劇和序言。簡潔地說,他的立場,“我的精神強度的一個人也不吃屍體”。 [53]

以及戲劇和序跋,肖寫了長期的政治論文,如費邊散文社會主義 (1889), [54]智能女人的指南,以社會主義與資本主義 (1912), [55]一個495頁的書,詳細說明各方面社會主義理論肖解釋。本版後者為社會主義和自由再版,在1928年, [56]晚在他的生活中,他寫了另一位導遊政治問題, 每個人的政治什麼是什麼 “(1944)。

函授和朋友 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

肖對應陣的人,許多眾所周知的。他和夫人的帕特里克·坎貝爾被改編為舞台,由杰羅姆Kilty 親愛的騙子:喜劇字母[57]是他的書信與詩人阿爾弗雷德勳爵'Bosie'道格拉斯 (王爾德)的親密朋友,入戲Bernard和Bosie的:,安東尼永利 一個最不可能的友誼 。到著名女星埃倫特里[58]拳擊手基因Tunney他的信, [59]HG威爾斯[60]也已公佈。 Eventually the volume of his correspondence became insupportable, as can be inferred from apologetic letters written by assistants. [ 61 ] Shaw campaigned against the executions of the rebel leaders of the Easter Rising , and he became a personal friend of the Cork -born IRA leader Michael Collins , whom he invited to his home for dinner while Collins was negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Lloyd George in London. After Collins's assassination in 1922, Shaw sent a personal message of condolence to one of Collins's sisters. He much admired (and was admired by) GK Chesterton . [ 62 ] When Chesterton died, Shaw mourned his death in a poignant letter to Chesterton's widow; he had always expected that he would predecease Chesterton, being the latter's senior by almost two decades.

Shaw also enjoyed a (somewhat stormy) friendship with TE Lawrence , known most notably for his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom and his role as liaison for the Arab revolt during World War I. Lawrence even used the name "Shaw" as his nom de guerre when he joined the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman in the 1920s.

Another friend was the composer Edward Elgar , whose work Shaw revered. Though Elgar was a Conservative, they had interests, besides music, in common – for instance both opposed vivisection. Elgar dedicated one of his late works, Severn Suite , to Shaw; and Shaw exerted himself (eventually with success) to persuade the BBC to commission from Elgar a third symphony, though this piece remained incomplete at Elgar's death. Shaw's correspondence with the motion picture producer Gabriel Pascal , who was the first to bring Shaw's plays successfully to the screen and who later tried to put into motion a musical adaptation of Pygmalion , but died before he could realize it, is published in a book titled Bernard Shaw and Gabriel Pascal ., [ 63 ] A stage play by Hugh Whitemore , The Best of Friends , provides a window on the friendships of Dame Laurentia McLachlan , OSB (late Abbess of Stanbrook) with Sir Sydney Cockerell and Shaw through adaptations from their letters and writings. A television adaptation of the play, aired on PBS , starred John Gielgud as Cockerell, Wendy Hiller as Laurentia, and Patrick McGoohan as Shaw. It is available on DVD.

Shaw's, perhaps, most personally revealing and, definitely, most voluminous letter correspondence, though, was with his fellow playwright and intimate friend from childhood, Mathew Edward McNulty . [ 64 ] The very, very small extant fragment of this correspondence is housed in the Rare Book Collection at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

攝影 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

Shaw bought his first camera in 1898 and was an active amateur photographer until his death in 1950. Before 1898 Shaw had been an early supporter of photography as a serious art form. His non-fiction writing includes many reviews of photographic exhibitions such as those by his friend Alvin Langdon Coburn .

The photographs document a prolific literary and political life – Shaw's friends, travels, politics, plays, films and home life. It also records his experiments with photography over 50 years and for the photographic historian provides a record of the development of the photographic and printing techniques available to the amateur photographer between 1898 and 1950.

The collection is currently the subject of a major project, Man & Cameraman [ 65 ] which will allow online access to thousands of photos taken by Shaw.

Political, social, and religious views [ edit source | edit ]

Shaw asserted that each social class strove to serve its own ends, and that the upper and middle classes won in the struggle while the working class lost. He condemned the democratic system of his time, saying that workers, ruthlessly exploited by greedy employers, lived in abject poverty and were too ignorant and apathetic to vote intelligently. [ 66 ] He believed this deficiency would ultimately be corrected by the emergence of long-lived supermen with experience and intelligence enough to govern properly. He called the developmental process elective breeding but it is sometimes referred to as shavian eugenics , largely because he thought it was driven by a "Life Force" that led women — subconsciously — to select the mates most likely to give them superior children. [ 67 ] The outcome Shaw envisioned is dramatised in Back to Methuselah , a monumental play depicting human development from its beginning in the Garden of Eden until the distant future. [ 68 ]

In 1882, influenced by Henry George 's view that the rent value of land belongs to all, Shaw concluded that private ownership of land and its exploitation for personal profit was a form of theft, and advocated equitable distribution of land and natural resources and their control by governments intent on promoting the commonwealth. Shaw believed that income for individuals should come solely from the sale of their own labour and that poverty could be eliminated by giving equal pay to everyone. These concepts led Shaw to apply for membership of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), led by HM Hyndman who introduced him to the works of Karl Marx . Shaw never joined the SDF, which favoured forcible reforms. Instead, in 1884, he joined the newly formed Fabian Society , which accorded with his belief that reform should be gradual and induced by peaceful means rather than by outright revolution. [ 69 ] Shaw was an active Fabian. He wrote many of their pamphlets, [ 54 ] lectured tirelessly on behalf of their causes and provided money to set up The New Age , an independent socialist journal. As a Fabian, he participated in the formation of the Labour Party . The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism [ 55 ] provides a clear statement of his socialistic views. As evinced in plays like Major Barbara and Pygmalion , class struggle is a motif in much of Shaw's writing.

Oscar Wilde was the sole literary signatory of Shaw's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested (and later executed) after the Haymarket massacre in Chicago in 1886. [ 70 ]

Shaw opposed the execution of Sir Roger Casement in 1916. He wrote a letter "as an Irishman" [ 71 ] to The Times , which they rejected, but it was subsequently printed by both the Manchester Guardian on 22 July 1916, and by the New York American on 13 August 1916.

Shaw was not necessarily better informed about actual conditions in other countries than other people were at the time, and tended to believe the best of people who professed similar principles to those he held himself. This led to him taking some positions that now seem grotesque.

Communism [ edit source | edit ]

After visiting the USSR in 1931 and meeting Joseph Stalin , Shaw became a supporter of the Stalinist USSR . On 11 October 1931 he broadcast a lecture on American national radio telling his audience that any 'skilled workman...of suitable age and good character' would be welcomed and given work in the Soviet Union. [ 72 ] Tim Tzouliadis asserts that several hundred Americans responded to his suggestion and left for the USSR. [ 73 ]

Shaw continued this support for Stalin's system in the preface to his play On the Rocks (1933) writing:

But the most elaborate code of this sort would still have left unspecified a hundred ways in which wreckers of Communism could have sidetracked it without ever having to face the essential questions: are you pulling your weight in the social boat? are you giving more trouble than you are worth? have you earned the privilege of living in a civilized community? That is why the Russians were forced to set up an Inquisition or Star Chamber, called at first the Cheka and now the Gay Pay Oo (Ogpu), to go into these questions and "liquidate" persons who could not answer them satisfactorily. [ 74 ]

Yet, Shaw defends "the sacredness of criticism":

Put shortly and undramatically the case is that a civilization cannot progress without criticism, and must therefore, to save itself from stagnation and putrefaction, declare impunity for criticism. This means impunity not only for propositions which, however novel, seem interesting, statesmanlike, and respectable, but for propositions that shock the uncritical as obscene, seditious, blasphemous, heretical, and revolutionary. [ 74 ]

In an open letter to the Manchester Guardian in 1933, he dismissed stories—which were later determined to be largely substantiated—of a Soviet famine as slanderous, and contrasts them with the hardships then current in the West during the Great Depression:

We desire to record that we saw nowhere evidence of such economic slavery, privation, unemployment and cynical despair of betterment as are accepted as inevitable and ignored by the press as having "no news value" in our own countries." [ 75 ]

In the preface to On The Rocks he wrote:

It sounds simple; but the process requires better planning than is always forthcoming (with local famines and revolts as the penalty); for while the grass grows the steed starves; and when education means not only schools and teachers, but giant collective farms equipped with the most advanced agricultural machinery, which means also gigantic engineering works for the production of the machinery, you may easily find that you have spent too much on these forms of capitalization and are running short of immediately consumable goods, presenting the spectacle of the nation with the highest level of general culture running short of boots and tightening its belt for lack of sufficient food.
I must not suggest that this has occurred all over Russia; for I saw no underfed people there; and the children were remarkably plump. And I cannot trust the reports; for I have no sooner read in The Times a letter from Mr Kerensky assuring me that in the Ukraine the starving people are eating one another, than M. Herriot, the eminent French statesman, goes to Russia and insists on visiting the Ukraine so that he may have ocular proof of the alleged cannibalism, but can find no trace of it. Still, between satiety and starvation mitigated by cannibalism there are many degrees of shortage; and it is no secret that the struggle of the Russian Government to provide more collective farms and more giant factories to provide agricultural machinery for them has to be carried on against a constant clamor from the workers for new boots and clothes, and more varied food and more of it: in short, less sacrifice of the present to the future. [ 74 ]

He wrote a defence of Lysenkoism in a letter to Labour Monthly , in which he asserted that an "acquired characteristic" could be heritable, writing of Lysenko : "Following up Michurin's agricultural experiments he found that it is possible to extend the area of soil cultivation by breeding strains of wheat that flourish in a sub-Arctic climate, and transmit this acquired characteristic to its seed." He added:

Lysenko is on the right side as a Vitalist; but the situation is confused by the purely verbal snag that Marx called his philosophy Dialectical Materialism. Now in Russia Marx is a Pontif; and all scientists who do not call themselves Materialists must be persecuted. Accordingly, Lysenko has to pretend that he is a Materialist when he is in fact a Vitalist; and thus muddles us ludicrously. Marxism seems to have gone as mad as Weismannism; and it is no longer surprising that Marx had to insist that he was not a Marxist. [ 76 ]

Despite Shaw's scepticism about the creation of the Irish Free State , he was supportive of Éamon de Valera 's stance on the Second World War, including his policy of refusing to fall in line with the Allies' demand towards neutral countries on refusing to provide asylum to Axis war criminals during the war. [ 77 ] According to Shaw "The voice of the Irish gentleman and Spanish grandee was a welcome relief from the chorus of retaliatory rancor and self-righteousness then deafening us". [ 78 ]

Eugenics [ edit source | edit ]

Shaw delivered speeches on the theory of eugenics and he became a noted figure in the movement in England. [ 79 ]

Shaw's play Man and Superman (1903) has been said to be "invested with eugenic doctrines" and "an ironic reworking" of Nietzsche 's concept of Übermensch . [ 79 ] [ 80 ] The main character in the play, John Tanner, is the author of "The Revolutionist's Handbook and Pocket Companion", which Shaw published along with his play. The Revolutionist's Handbook includes chapters on "Good Breeding" and "Property and Marriage". In the "Property and Marriage" section Tanner writes:

To cut humanity up into small cliques, and effectively limit the selection of the individual to his own clique, is to postpone the Superman for eons, if not for ever. Not only should every person be nourished and trained as a possible parent, but there should be no possibility of such an obstacle to natural selection as the objection of a countess to a navvy or of a duke to a charwoman. Equality is essential to good breeding; and equality, as all economists know, is incompatible with property.

In this Shaw was managing to synthesize eugenics with socialism, his best-loved political doctrine. This was a popular concept at the time. [ 81 ]

Shaw in 1905

When, in 1910, Shaw wrote that natural attraction rather than wealth or social class should govern selection of marriage partners, the concept of eugenics did not have the negative connotations it later acquired after having been adopted by the Nazis of Germany. [ 82 ] Shaw sometimes treated the topic in a light-hearted way, pointing out that if eugenics had been thought about some generations previously, he himself may not have been born, so depriving humanity of his great contributions. [ 83 ] He seems to have maintained his opinion throughout his life. [ 82 ]

As with many of the topics that Shaw addressed, but particularly so in his examination of the "social purity" movement, he used irony, misdirection and satire to make his point. [ 74 ] [ 84 ] [ 85 ] At a meeting of the Eugenics Education Society of 3 March 1910 he suggested the need to use a "lethal chamber" to solve their problem. Shaw said: "We should find ourselves committed to killing a great many people whom we now leave living, and to leave living a great many people whom we at present kill. We should have to get rid of all ideas about capital punishment ..." Shaw also called for the development of a "deadly" but "humane" gas for the purpose of killing, many at a time, those unfit to live. [ 86 ]

In a newsreel interview released on 5 March 1931, dealing with alternatives to the imprisonment of criminals, Shaw says

You must all know half a dozen people at least who are no use in this world, who are more trouble than they are worth. Just put them there and say Sir, or Madam, now will you be kind enough to justify your existence? If you can't justify your existence, if you're not pulling your weight in the social boat, if you're not producing as much as you consume or perhaps a little more, then, clearly, we cannot use the organizations of our society for the purpose of keeping you alive, because your life does not benefit us and it can't be of very much use to yourself. [ 87 ] [ 88 ]

Shaw, however, often used satiric irony in order to mock those who took eugenics to inhumane extremes and commentators have sometimes failed to take this into account. [ 79 ] [ 89 ] Some noticed that this was an example of Shaw satirically employing the reductio ad absurdum argument against the eugenicists' wilder aspirations: The Globe and The Evening News recognised it as a skit on the dreams of the eugenicists, though many others in the press took his words out of their satirical context. Dan Stone of Liverpool University writes: "Either the press believed Shaw to be serious, and vilified him, or recognised the tongue-in-cheek nature of his lecture". [ 89 ] [ 90 ]

宗教 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

In his will, Shaw stated that his "religious convictions and scientific views cannot at present be more specifically defined than as those of a believer in creative revolution." [ 91 ] He requested that no one should imply that he accepted the beliefs of any specific religious organization, and that no memorial to him should "take the form of a cross or any other instrument of torture or symbol of blood sacrifice." [ 91 ]

From: Gary Sloan, "The religion of George Bernard Shaw: when is an Atheist?", published in American Atheist Magazine, Autumn 2004:

... Until he was thirty or so, Shaw called himself an Atheist. He became one, he later quipped, before he could think. He adjudged the doctrines of the Church of Ireland, which he attended as a child, unintelligible or absurd. Since the first of its Thirty-nine Articles describes god as "without body, parts, or passions," he waggishly theorized that the church was atheistic. An incomprehensible god, he opined, was tantamount to no god. In 1875, he blazoned his Atheism abroad. In a letter to Public Opinion, a Dublin newspaper, he "announced with inflexible materialistic logic, and to the extreme horror of my respectable connections, that I was an atheist." In Immaturity, the first of five novels he wrote in his twenties, the young protagonist, obviously Shaw's alter ego, walks pensively in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey: "His hushed step, impressive bearing, and reflective calm, marked him as a confirmed freethinker."

In "The New Theology," he prepped his audience: "When you are asked, 'Where is God? Who is God?' stand up and say, 'I am God and here is God, not as yet completed, but still advancing towards completion, just in so much as I am working for the purpose of the universe, working for the good of the whole society and the whole world, instead of merely looking after my personal ends."' God "would provide himself with a perfectly fashioned and trustworthy instrument. And such an instrument would be nothing less than God himself."''

[Sloan concludes his lengthy essay about the religion of George Bernard Shaw (only excerpts from which appear here) by opining:]

So if, as theologians and philosophers have traditionally maintained, existence is a necessary attribute of God, Shaw qualifies as an Atheist, albeit an involuntary one.

Legacy [ edit source | edit ]

A statue of Shaw in Niagara-on-the-Lake

In his old age, Shaw was a household name both in Britain and Ireland, and was famed throughout the world. His ironic wit endowed English with the adjective "Shavian", used to characterize observations such as: "My way of joking is to tell the truth. It's the funniest joke in the world." Concerned about the vagaries of English spelling, Shaw willed a portion of his wealth (probated at £367,233 13s) [ 92 ] to fund the creation of a new phonemic alphabet for the English language. [ 93 ] However, the money available was insufficient to support the project, so it was neglected for a time. This changed when his estate began earning significant royalties from the rights to Pygmalion after My Fair Lady —the musical adapted from Pygmalion by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe —became a hit. However, the Public Trustee found the intended trust to be invalid because its intent was to serve a private interest instead of a charitable purpose, and as a non-charitable purpose trust, it could not be enforced because it failed to satisfy the beneficiary principle. [ 94 ] In the end an out-of-court settlement granted only £8600 for promoting the new alphabet, which is now called the Shavian alphabet . The National Gallery of Ireland , RADA and the British Museum all received substantial bequests.

Shaw's home, now called Shaw's Corner , in the small village of Ayot St Lawrence , Hertfordshire is a National Trust property, open to the public. [ 95 ] The Shaw Theatre , Euston Road , London, opened in 1971, was named in his honour. [ 96 ] Near its entrance, opposite the new British Library , a contemporary statue of Saint Joan commemorates Shaw as author of that play.

The Shaw Festival , an annual theater festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake , Ontario, Canada began as an eight-week run of Don Juan in Hell (as the long third act dream sequence of Man And Superman is called when staged alone) and Candida in 1962, and has grown into an annual festival with over 800 performances a year, dedicated to producing the works of Shaw and his contemporaries. The portrait of George Bernard Shaw located at Niagara-on-the-Lake was commissioned by hotelier Si Wai Lai and sculpted by Dr. Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook , CM (1913–2009). [ 97 ] [ 98 ]

He is also remembered as one of the pivotal founders of the London School of Economics , whose library is now called the British Library of Political and Economic Science . The Fabian Window , designed by Shaw, hangs in the Shaw Library in the main building of the LSE.

作品 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

Novels [ edit source | edit ]

Short stories [ edit source | edit ]

Drama [ edit source | edit ]

Essays [ edit source | edit ]

  • Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891)
  • The Perfect Wagnerite , Commentary on the Ring (1898)
  • Maxims for Revolutionists (1903)
  • Preface to Major Barbara (1905)
  • " On Going to Church " (1905)
  • How to Write a Popular Play (1909)
  • Treatise on Parents and Children (1910)
  • Common Sense about the War (1914)
  • The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1928)
  • Major Critical Essays (1930). Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891), The Perfect Wagnerite (1898) and The Sanity of Art in one volume.
  • Essays in Fabian Socialism (1931). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1932.
  • Pen Portraits and Reviews (1931). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1932.
  • Doctors' Delusions, Crude Criminology, Sham Education (1931). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1932.
  • Short Stories, Scraps and Shavings (1932). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1934.
  • Our Theatres in the Nineties (1932). Collected drama criticism.
  • Dictators – Let Us Have More of Them (1938)
  • Everybody's Political What's What? (1944)
  • Sixteen Self Sketches (1949)
  • The Selected Prose of Bernard Shaw (1952). Selected and with Introduction by Diarmuid Russell. One thousand pages of essays, criticism, extracts from novels, etc. Contains The Perfect Wagnerite and The Quintessence of Ibsenism complete, including prefaces. Also contains Shaw's biographical prefaces to Immaturity and London Music in 1888–1889 . Thematically organised and finely introduced. Excellent introduction to the scope of Shaw's prose.
  • Shaw on Shakespeare: An Anthology of Bernard Shaw's Writings (1961)
  • Shaw: An Autobiography (1970). Selected and edited by Stanley Weintraub. 2 vols.
  • What Shaw Really Wrote about the War (2006). Edited by JL Wisenthal and Daniel O'Leary.

Musical Criticism [ edit source | edit ]

  • Music in London 1890–94. Criticism Contributed Week by Week to the World . 3 vols, 1932.
  • London Music in 1888–89 as Heard by Corno di Bassetto (later known as Bernard Shaw) with Some Further Autobiographical Particulars , 1937. Contains important, some 30 pages long, preface by Shaw.
  • Collected Music Criticism . New York: Vienna House, 1973. 4卷。 Reprints the two titles above.
  • How to Become a Musical Critic . Rupert Hart-Davis, 1960. Edited and with Introduction by Dan H. Laurence. Previously uncollected pieces on music written between 1883 and 1950.
  • Shaw's Music: The Complete Musical Criticism Of Bernard Shaw . The Bodley Head, Paperback, 1989. 3卷。 Second Revised Edition. Edited by Dan H. Laurence. Definitive edition.
    • 卷。 1: 1876–1890. Editor's Introduction and Notes, including one to the Second Edition.
    • 卷。 2: 1890–1893.
    • 卷。 3: 1893–1950. General Index to all volumes.
      • Note. First published in hardback in 1981. The Second Revised Edition was published only in paperback and it differs from the earlier one by only four short pieces [Dan H. Laurence, 'Editor's Note to the Second Edition'].
  • Shaw on Music . Applause, 2000. Edited by Eric Bentley. Fine, thematically organised selection, mostly from Shaw's professional criticism (1889–1894).
  • The Perfect Wagnerite (1898). Dover edition, 1967. Reprint of the Fourth Edition (1923). Contains the prefaces to the first three editions.

Debate [ edit source | edit ]

  • Shaw v. Chesterton, a debate between George Bernard Shaw and GK Chesterton (2000) Third Way Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-9535077-7-7 . E-text
  • Do We Agree , a debate between GB Shaw and GK Chesterton with Hilaire Belloc as chairman (1928)

另見 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

註釋 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

  1. ^ Al Gore also won a Nobel Prize (but not for Literature), and starred in an Academy Award-winning documentary, but the latter was not awarded to him personally.
  2. ^ Gibbs, AM (2005). Bernard Shaw: A Life . Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida . pp. 375–376. ISBN 0-8130-2859-0 .  
  3. ^ Chesterton, GK (1909). "The Progressive". George Bernard Shaw . New York: J Lane & Co. OCLC 1931298 .  
  4. ^ George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), Anglo-Irish playwright, critic. Letter, 7 August 1919, to Thomas Demetrius O'Bolger. Sixteen Self Sketches: Biographers' Blunders Corrected , pp. 89–90. Constable and Co., London (1949)
  5. ^ Shaw, Bernard (1914). Misalliance, the Dark Lady of the Sonnets, and Fanny's First Play. With a Treatise on Parents and Children . London: Constable and Co. p. 210.  
  6. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1988). Bernard Shaw .卷。 I. New York: Random House . pp. 49–51. ISBN 0-394-52577-9 .  
  7. ^ a b Mazer, Cary M. "Bernard Shaw: a Brief Biography" . University of Pennsylvania's English Department . Retrieved 3 June 2007 .  
  8. ^ Morrow, Laurie. "The Playwright in Spite of Himself" . The World & I . Retrieved 3 July 2007 .  
  9. ^ Minney, RJ (1969). The Bogus Image of Bernard Shaw . London: Leslie Frewin.第18。  
  10. ^ Pease, Edward R.; Paavo Cajander (trans.) (2004). The History of the Fabian Society . Project Gutenberg. ISBN 1-84702-433-5 . Retrieved 30 March 2008 .  
  11. ^ Stanley Weintraub. "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" . 6 2011年6月  
  12. ^ Jceps.com
  13. ^ Laurence, Dan H. (1965). Bernard Shaw: Collected Letters, 1874–1897 . London & Beccles: William Clowes & Sons, Ltd. Introduction xi.  
  14. ^ "Bernard Shaw papers at LSE Archives" . London School of Economics Library . Retrieved 29 March 2008 .  
  15. ^ "From the archive: 9 April 1913: Launching the New Statesman" republished in The Guardian , Wednesday 9 April 2008.
  16. ^ Arthur Clarke, The challenge of the Spaceship (Pocket Book edition, New York 1980, p.13-14, note).
  17. ^ Obituary Variety , 8 November 1950, page 71.
  18. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1991). Bernard Shaw. The Lure of Fantasy: 1918–1951 . Random House, New York. pp. 509–511. ISBN 0394575547 .  
  19. ^ Holyroyd, p. 515.
  20. ^ Tyson, Brian (1982). The Story of Shaw's Saint Joan .麥吉爾-皇后出版社。第116. ISBN 9780773585133 .  
  21. ^ Pharand, Michael (2004). "Chronology of (Shaw's) Works" . International Shaw Society . Retrieved 15 August 2007 .  
  22. ^ "George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950)" . Unity Theatre .檢索16 2007年8月  
  23. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1949). Sixteen Self Sketches: Nine Years of Failure as a Novelist Ending in Success as Critic . London: Constable and Company, Ltd. pp. 39–41.  
  24. ^ Cox, Gareth. "Shaw and the Don" . Limerick Philosophical Society . Retrieved 3 June 2007 .  
  25. ^ Matthew, John F. (1969). George Bernard Shaw . USA: Columbia University Press. pp. 16–17.  
  26. ^ 谷歌圖書
  27. ^ a b Shaw, George Bernard (1909). The Perfect Wagnerite . New York: Brentano's. Brahms p. 143. ISBN 0-14-043261-2 .  
  28. ^ Thuleen, Nancy. "Ein deutsches Requiem: Misconceptions of the Mass" . Nancy Thuleen's Official Website . Retrieved 3 June 2007 .  
  29. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1988). Bernard Shaw, Volume I (1856–1898) .紐約:蘭登書屋。 pp. 230–246. ISBN 0-394-52577-9 .  
  30. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1981). Laurence, Dan H., ed. Shaw's Music . London: Bodley Head Ltd. ISBN 0-370-30249-4 .  
  31. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1891). The Quintessence of Ibsenism . New York: Brentano's. ISBN 0-14-043261-2 .  
  32. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1886). Cashel Byron's Profession . London: The Modern Press.  
  33. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1887). An Unsocial Socialist . London: Swan Sonnenschein, Lowry & Co.  
  34. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1900 & 1914). Love Among the Artists . Chicago & London: Herbert Stone & Co.  
  35. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1905). The Irrational Knot, Being the Second Novel of His Nonage (revised) . New York: Brentano's.  
  36. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1931). Immaturity . London: Constable.  
  37. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1934). The Black Girl in Search of God and Some Lesser Tales . London: Constable.  
  38. ^ Shaw, Bernard (1963). Complete Plays and Prefaces, Volumes I–VI . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.  
  39. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1991). Bernard Shaw Vol. III The Lure of Fantasy . New York: Random House, Inc. pp. 190–194. ISBN 0-394-57554-7 .  
  40. ^ Minney, RJ (1969). The Bogus Image of Bernard Shaw . London: Leslie Frewin Publishers, Ltd. pp. 66–7. ISBN 0-09-096280-X .  
  41. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1997). Bernard Shaw. The One-Volume Definitive Edition . New York: Random House, Inc. p. 311. ISBN 0-09-096280-X .  
  42. ^ Shaw, George Bernard; The Public Trustee (Executor of Shaw's Estate) (1962). Bernard Shaw: Complete Works with Prefaces, Volume I . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.第452.  
  43. ^ Shaw, George Bernard; The Public Trustee (Executor of Shaw's Estate) (1962). Bernard Shaw: Complete Works with Prefaces, Volume I, Act I . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.第757.  
  44. ^ a b c d Martin, Stanley (2007). "George Bernard Shaw". The Order of Merit: one hundred years of matchless honour . London: Taurus.第484. ISBN 978-1-86064-848-9 .  
  45. ^ Ervine, St. John (1949). Bernard Shaw: His Life, Work and Friends . London: Constable and Company Limited.第383.  
  46. ^ Shaw, Bernard (1972). Dan H. Laurence, ed. Collected Letters, 1898–1910 . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. pp. 827–8.  
  47. ^ "George Bernard Shaw" . Spartacus Educational . Retrieved 3 June 2007 .  
  48. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (29 November 1914). "Common Sense About the War" (PDF). The New York Times .  
  49. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1989). Bernard Shaw Vol. II The Pursuit of Power . New York: Random House, Inc. p. 354. ISBN 0-394-57553-9 .  
  50. ^ Shaw, Bernard (1965). Collected Letters: 1874–1897 .第448.  
  51. ^ Henderson, Archibald (1956). George Bernard Shaw: Man of the Century . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc. ISBN 0-306-71491-4 .  
  52. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1949). Who I am, and What I think: Sixteen Self Sketches . Constable.  
  53. ^ Pearson, Hesketh (1963). Bernard Shaw: His Life and Personality . Atheneum Press. ISBN 0-689-70149-7 .  
  54. ^ a b Shaw, George Bernard (1889). Fabian Essays in Socialism . New York: The Humboldt Publishing Co . Retrieved 12 September 2007 .  
  55. ^ a b Shaw, George Bernard (1928). Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Communism . New York: Bretano's Publishers.  
  56. ^ "Socialism and Liberty" . Marxists Internet Archive . 7月13日  
  57. ^ Kilty, Jerome (1960). Dear liar; a comedy of letters adapted by Jerome Kilty from the correspondence of Bernard Shaw and Mrs. Patrick Campbell . New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.第95.  
  58. ^ 聖John, Cristopher (1931). Ellen Terry and Bernard Shaw: A Correspondence . New York: GP Putnam's Sons: Knickerbocker Press.第334.  
  59. ^ Green, Benny (1978). Shaw's champions : GBS & prizefighting from Cashel Byron to Gene Tunney . London: Elm Tree Books.第210. ISBN 0-241-89735-1 .  
  60. ^ Smith, J. Percy, ed. (1995). Bernard Shaw and HG Wells . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.第242. ISBN 0-8020-3001-7 .  
  61. ^ "Mr. Shaw regrets" . Boston College Magazine . Retrieved 3 June 2007 .  
  62. ^ The e-text of their famed debate, Shaw V. Chesterton is available, as is a book, Shaw V. Chesterton , a debate between the two men.
  63. ^ Dukore, Bernard F., ed. (September 1996). Bernard Shaw and Gabriel Pascal: Selected Correspondence of Bernard Shaw, Vol. 3 .多倫多大學出版社。第224. ISBN 0-8020-3002-5 .  
  64. ^ Shaw Interviews and Recollections , AM Gibbs, ed., University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, © 1990, p. 17 and Michael Holyroyd, Bernard Shaw , Random House, NY © 1988, Vol. 1, p. 37
  65. ^ Man and Cameraman – revealing the photographic legacy of George Bernard Shaw . LSE.ac.uk
  66. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1930). An UnsocialSocialist . New York: Wm. H. Wise & Company.第269.  
  67. ^ Shaw, George Bernard; Lewis Casson (Intro.) (1969). Man and Superman . New York: Heritage Press.  
  68. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (2007). Back to Methuselah—a Metabiological Penateuch . Hicks press.第388. ISBN 1-4086-3104-0 .  
  69. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (1949). Sixteen Self Sketches: How I Became a Public Speaker . London: Constable and Company, Ltd. p. 58.  
  70. ^ Ellmann, Richard (1988). Oscar Wilde. New York: Vintage Books.
  71. ^ Shaw, GB. "Letter from GB Shaw" . Stephen-Stratford . Retrieved 26 September 2008 .  
  72. ^ Tim Tzouliadis: The Forsaken , p.10; London, 2009
  73. ^ Tzouliadis, p. 12
  74. ^ a b c d Shaw, George Bernard (1934). "On The Rocks" .  
  75. ^ "Letters to the Editor: Social Conditions in Russia by George Bernard Shaw, published in The Manchester Guardian , 2 March 1933" . Gareth Jones' Memorial Website . Retrieved 3 June 2007 .  
  76. ^ Shaw, George Bernard (January 1949). "The Lysenko Muddle" . Labour Monthly .  
  77. ^ Griffith, Gareth (1992). Socialism and Superior Brains: The Political Thought of George Bernard Shaw . London: Routledge.第272. ISBN 978-0-4150-8281-5 .  
  78. ^ Shaw, GB (1962). The matter with Ireland . London: Hart-Davis.第289. OCLC 644062672 .  
  79. ^ a b c Kevles, Daniel J. (1995). In the name of eugenics: genetics and the uses of human heredity . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN 0-674-44557-0 .  
  80. ^ Spinks, Lee (2003). Friedrich Nietzsche .紐約:勞特利奇。第155. ISBN 0-415-26359-X .  
  81. ^ Searle, Geoffrey Russell (1976). Eugenics and politics in Britain, 1900–1914 . Groningen, Netherlands: Noordhoff International. pp. 58; 113. ISBN 978-90-286-0236-6 .  
  82. ^ a b Baker, Stuart (2002). "Ethics, Economics, and Government". Bernard Shaw's remarkable religion: a faith that fits the facts . Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. pp. 169–170. ISBN 0-8130-2432-3 . "That word [eugenics] has acquired some highly unpleasant baggage, so we need to explain carefully what it is that Shaw meant by the term, which is capable of producing near-hysterical reactions in otherwise levelheaded people. These people seem to believe that because eugenics was evoked to justify Nazi genocide, eugenics must necessarily be evil. The well-intentioned people who wished to rid the world of congenital defects cannot be held responsible for racists who promoted genocide, and the attempt to tar Shaw with that brush is simply stupid. His statements on eugenics were consistent throughout his life: he maintained, first, that better breeding was essential and, second, that only the Life Force could be trusted to select the pairs."  
  83. ^ Rao, Mohan (2004). From population control to reproductive health: Malthusian arithmetic . Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.第95. ISBN 0-7619-3285-2 .  
  84. ^ Marshik, Celia (2006). "Bernard Shaw's defensive laughter". British modernism and censorship . Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 0-521-85966-2 . "The hurdles imposed by the social purity movement...encouraged Shaw to turn to indirection and satire"  
  85. ^ Hanson, Michael Hanchett (2005). "Irony and conflict". In Wallace, Doris B. Education, arts, and morality: creative journeys . New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.第33. ISBN 0-306-48670-9 . "Certain individuals, like Shaw, are known for their sense of irony...[He believed] most people in a given culture should have some ability to recognize irony."  
  86. ^ Conolly, Leonard (2009). Bernard Shaw and the BBC . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.第189. ISBN 0-8020-8920-8 .  
  87. ^ "George Bernard Shaw reopens capital punishment controversy" . Paramount British Pictures . 5 March 1931 . 7月31日  
  88. ^ A transcript was prepared for Fox News : Beck, Glenn (25 January 2010). "The Revolutionary Holocaust: Live Free or Die" . Fox News . 20 2011年1月  
  89. ^ a b Stone (2002: 127)
  90. ^ Searle (1976: 92): "This was widely felt to be a joke in the worst possible taste".
  91. ^ a b "Religion: Creative Revolutionary" . Time . 4 December 1950. "a paragraph from his will made it clear where the author...stood on the question of religion"  
  92. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1998). Bernard Shaw: A Biography .復古。  
  93. ^ Holroyd, Michael (1997). Bernard Shaw: The One-Volume Definitive Edition, Appendix . New York: Random House, Inc. p. 794. ISBN 0-375-50049-9 .  
  94. ^ Mowbray QC, John. "Chapter 03: Trusts Created Expressly" . Todd & Watt's Cases and Materials on Equity and Trusts .牛津大學出版社。 Archived from the original on 23 April 2008 . Retrieved 9 April 2008 .  
  95. ^ The National Trust. "Shaw's Corner" . Retrieved 9 April 2006 .  
  96. ^ Off Westend Theatres, London. "Shaw's Theatre" . Retrieved 9 April 2006 .  
  97. ^ Holmes, Katherine, ed. (1986). Celebrating Twenty-Five Years on the Stage at the Shaw Festival . Erin Canada: Boston Mills Press. ISBN 0-919783-48-1 .  
  98. ^ Chilibeck, Grace (2009). Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook . Canada: Canadian Art Publications.  

參考文獻 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

  • Evans, TF "Shaw: The Critical heritage". The Critical Heritage series. Routlege & Kegan Paul , 1976
  • Gibbs, AM (Ed.). "Shaw: Interviews and Recollections".
  • Gibbs, AM "Bernard Shaw, A Life". University of Florida Press , 2005. ISBN 0-8130-2859-0
  • Henderson, Archibald. "Bernard Shaw: Playboy and Prophet". D. Appleton & Co., 1932
  • Holroyd, Michael (Etd). "The Genius of Shaw: A symposium", Hodder & Stoughton, 1979
  • Holroyd, Michael . "Bernard Shaw: The One-Volume Definitive Edition", Random House , 1998. ISBN 978-0-393-32718-2
  • Hubenka, Lloyd J. (Editor). "Bernard Shaw: Practical Politics: Twentieth-century views on politics and economics". University of Nebraska Press , 1976
  • Minney, RJ "The Bogus Image of Bernard Shaw". London, Frewin, 1969. ISBN 0-09-096280-X
  • Ohmann, Richard M. "Shaw: The Style and the Man". Wesleyan University Press , 1962. ASIN: B000OKX9H2
  • Owen, Harold. "Common sense about the Shaw". George Allen and Unwin , 1915
  • Peters, Sally. "Bernard Shaw: The Ascent of the Superman". Yale University Press , 1996 ISBN 978-0-300-06097-3
  • Rider, Dan. "Adventures with Bernard Shaw". Morley and Mitchell Kennerley Junior.
  • Smith, J. Percy. "Unrepentant Pilgrim: A study of the development of Bernard Shaw". Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1965
  • Stone, Dan (2002). Breeding superman: Nietzsche, race and eugenics in Edwardian and interwar Britain . Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-0-85323-997-0 .  
  • Strauss, E. "Bernard Shaw: Art and Socialism". Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1942
  • Weintraub, Stanley. "Bernard Shaw 1914–1918: Journey to Heartbreak". Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973
  • Weintraub, Stanley. "The Unexpected Shaw: Biographical approaches to GBS and his work". Frederick Ungar Publishing Co, 1982 ISBN 0-8044-2974-X
  • West, Alick. "A good man fallen among Fabians: A study of George Bernard Shaw" Lawrence and Wishart , 1974 ISBN 978-0-85315-288-0
  • Watson, Barbara Bellow: "A Shavian Guide to the intelligent woman". Chatto and Windus, 1964
  • Wilson, Colin . "Bernard Shaw: A Reassessment". Athenum, 1969.
  • Winsten, Stephen. "Jesting Apostle: The Life of Bernard Shaw". Hutchinson and Co Ltd, 1956
  • Winsten, Stephen. "Salt and his circle: With a preface by Bernard Shaw". Hutchinson and Co Ltd, 1951

外部鏈接 [ 編輯源 | 編輯 ]

獎項及成就
之前
Anton Lang
Cover of Time Magazine
24 December 1923
成功
Anthony Fokker